by John Peragine
Some of the smallest words in English (and other languages) are pronouns, but they have a profound impact on meaning and emotions. Using them well in our writing is a powerful shortcut to help our readers.
Pronouns can be proclamations of our psyches to the world, about how we feel about ourselves and others around us. Pronouns can bring us comfort and they can bring us pain. Pronouns can drive us to rage or drop us into tears.
Pronouns are declarations separating us from them. They can bring us together. And they can accuse them.
Sit with this simple sentence for a moment:
Look at what they are doing to my city.
More than likely when you read that sentence, your inner voice reacted. How did it make you feel? What did it make you think about?
Consider this sentence below and notice what changing the pronouns does to the tone, feel, and imagery.
Look at what we are doing to our city.
Pronouns are debated in Washington. Laws are made surrounding them. The usage of the right pronoun can make us feel included. Conversely, the misuse or misattribution of a pronoun can be used as a weapon.
It is for these reasons that the proper use and care of pronouns should be given in our writing. All our writing: articles, books, emails, and social media. As writers, we have a responsibility to use pronouns with the highest level of ethics and personal moral standards.
A Quick Pronoun Primer
Here is a quick list of all the various pronouns.
- Subject Pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, they
- Object Pronouns: me, you, him, her, it
- Possessive Pronouns: my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its
- Interrogative Pronouns: who, whom, whose, what, which
- Indefinite Pronouns: another, each, everything, nobody, either, someone
- Relative Pronouns: who, whom, whose, that, which
- Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
- Demonstrative Pronouns: this, that
POV and Pronouns
My recent work in progress was originally written in third person point of view. I worked on it for three years, pitched to agents and publishers, and I was schooled about my genre. My book was not an adult fantasy, as I originally believed, it was a middle-grade adventure.
I was crushed, not because I mis-genred it (yes, I am owning genred now), but because I now had the job of editing the whole book, analyzing every pronoun in every scene, and changing it to first person. When my main character spoke, I had to switch from "he said" to "I said," which opened up a totally new point of view and reflection on the scene.
In this total re-write, pronouns were my touchpoints. I gained a new respect for pronouns and their use in writing.
- Pronouns drive point of view.
- They let the reader know who is speaking.
- Pronouns show who (or what) is doing an action.
Using the right pronoun, and connecting it to the object it replaces, is important. Below, I've provided some common errors people make when using pronouns.
Using the Wrong Form of the Pronoun
People often choose the object form of a pronoun, rather than the subject form. Here is an example:
Over the course of the month, my friends and me went to the fishing hole every day.
This should read:
Over the course of the month, my friends and I went to the fishing hole every day.
The word “me” is the object form of the pronoun. The subject forms of pronouns are I, he, she, we, and they. These are subjects of the verb.
Pronouns After a Preposition
Pronouns can be the object of the preposition. Here is another example:
The ice cream was served at the end of the night, and party favors were given to she and the other girls.
It should read:
The ice cream was served at the end of the night, and party favors were given to her and the other girls.
In this case, "her" is the object of the preposition "to." If the prepositional phrase is shortened it would read "to them," again using the object form of the pronoun.
Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives
Consider the sentence:
The bride announces she and her new husband’s plans for their honeymoon include a trip to the Bahamas.
Pronouns have possessive forms: my, your, his, her, its, our, and their. These are pronouns that are used when an object is possessed. The sentence should read:
The bride announces her and her new husband’s plans for their honeymoon include a trip to the Bahamas.
Pronouns and Transitive verbs
Kelly signed she and her friend out of detention using her teacher’s signature.
In this sentence is the transitive verb signed. In this case the object form of the pronoun should be used.
Kelly signed her and her friend out of detention using her teacher’s signature.
Reflexive Pronoun Versus Personal Pronoun
Reflexive pronouns are those that end in -self or -selves. Examples are himself, herself, and ourselves. Consider this sentence:
Both my daughter and myself were daring enough to ride the double-loop rollercoaster.
The sentence should use a personal pronoun instead.
Both my daughter and I were daring enough to ride the double-loop rollercoaster.
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Here is a challenge for you: how many times did I misuse pronouns in this article? What do you believe is the most powerful pronoun in the English language?
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About John Peragine
John Peragine has published 14 books and ghostwritten more than 100 others. He is a contributor for HuffPost, Reuters, and The Today Show. He covered the John Edwards trial exclusively for Bloomberg News and The New York Times. He has written for Wine Enthusiast, Grapevine Magazine, Realtor.com, WineMaker magazine, and Writer's Digest.
John began writing professionally in 2007, after working 13 years in social work and as the piccolo player for the Western Piedmont Symphony for over 25 years. Peragine is a member of the American Society of Journalists and Authors. His newest book, Max and the Spice Thieves, will be released this Fall. https://www.facebook.com/twilightdjinn/