Writers in the Storm

A blog about writing

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March 10, 2014

Beat Sheets: For Plotters, Pantsers, and Technophobes

by Jami Gold

If you’ve heard of beat sheets before, you might have heard about complicated forms or spreadsheets. I don’t know about you, but I don’t do math. Heck, I write my stories by the seat of my pants, so something that forces me to draft in a regimented way doesn’t appeal to me either.

Er, okay… So why am I talking to you about beat sheets when they’re a tool of outlining and a Microsoft Excel thing with lots of numbers?

It’s because everyone can use beat sheets—plotters, pantsers, and anyone in between. Trust me. *smile*

So a Beat Sheet Is a Sheet with Beats? Huh? What the heck Is a Beat?

Story beats are plot events that force the story to turn in a new direction (i.e. “turning point”). They’re the choices, dilemmas, and questions that make readers turn the pages. After each main beat or turning point, the characters will usually have new goals or motivations, or the stakes will change (until the end, the stakes should usually increase).

But not all story beats are created equal. After all, some plot events are more important than others in terms of how much the story changes directions.

Some scenes will just show the characters carrying out their plans—nothing changes for the story until they’ve either succeeded or failed and need a new goal. Other scenes are obvious turning points, like a fight with the best friend, someone dies, showdown with the bad guy, etc.

Beat sheets will usually focus on story events where the story changes directions. Together those beats create the story’s structure and make a story feel complete. They give the story a sense of a beginning, middle, and ending.

Introducing the “Important” Story Beats

Most stories can be formed with just eight beats. Short stories might have even fewer beats. People assign all kinds of names to these beats, but what’s important is their purpose and where they land in the story (approximately).

Most stories have four Major Beats:

  • Starting point for the main conflict (around the 1/4 mark): The event that makes the protagonist commit to the story goal.
  • Midpoint (around the halfway mark): The event that flips the reader’s and/or the protagonist’s understanding of the story’s goals, choices, or stakes.
  • Black moment (around the 3/4 mark): The event that makes the protagonist lose all hope
  • Ending point for the main conflict (most of the last 1/4): The event that forces the protagonist into the final battle (literal or figurative) against the antagonistic forces.

Many stories also have four Minor Beats that fill in the blanks between those Major beats:

  • An event that launches the protagonist on the path toward the conflict
  • Two events (one before and one after the Midpoint) that add pressure by revealing more about the antagonistic forces or increasing the stakes
  • A final scene peeking into the future by showing how the protagonist has changed

Again, don’t worry about the names of these events. Just include scenes to fulfill these functions (if our story needs them) to give our story its bones.

Many story structure systems (Save the Cat, etc.) include additional beats, but these eight Major and Minor beats are the only ones we need (and even so, the Minor beats can be optional). If we’re a plotter who plans every scene in advance, we might find the secondary beats of other systems useful, but they’re not necessary for understanding or planning our story.

If we’re a pantser, we might have vague ideas for some of the beats before we start drafting, but they might also change during the drafting process. We definitely don’t need the clutter of secondary beats.

So… What’s a Beat Sheet?

Beat sheets provide a visual way of “tracking” our story and its structure. They’re often in a spreadsheet program like MS Excel—not to make things more complicated, but because Excel makes the math automatic.

(I strongly believe in no math, so all the beat sheets on my website use “auto-math.”)

On my website, I share several beat sheets, from the Basic Beat Sheet (which includes only those eight Major and Minor beats) to the Romance Beat Sheet (which maps the romance arc over those same eight beats).

I recommend the Basic Beat Sheet, as it’s good for pantsers who want just the basics and for writers new to beat sheets. (And as a bonus, I have a Scrivener template to match the Basic Beat Sheet too.)

To make the auto-math work, we simply change the Word Count field at the top of the beat sheet to an estimated or exact word count for our manuscript. Once we “enter” or click on another field within Excel, all beats will automatically adjust to show the expected page/word count marks for each beat.

Beat Sheet - Jami Gold

Notes: In most cases we do not want to touch the page count field. This number will automatically change when we update the word count.

How Do We Use a Beat Sheet?

Okay, we have a beat sheet with beat descriptions and a bunch of numbers in columns that automatically change to match our word count. What next?

Either during pre-drafting or revisions, we can:

  • ensure we have all the beats necessary for good storytelling (the 4 major beats and maybe the 4 minor beats)—look for the scenes/events that fulfill those story needs
  • verify the beats create increasing tension and stakes
  • make sure our story shows a change from the beginning to the ending
  • see where beats should fall page-count or word-count wise and compare that to our story’s actual pacing.

By comparing the expected page number from the beat sheet and the actual page number from our manuscript, we can see the big picture of our story’s pace. The comparison of those two numbers allows us to analyze our story:

  • Is our story too slow in places?
  • Do we have unnecessary scenes?
  • Or have we underdeveloped an idea or reaction?

Beats don’t need to fall on exact page numbers but more than 2-5% off (maybe more in some stories, or for the Minor beats) might indicate a pacing problem. Too many pages between beats might indicate an unnecessary scene.

Once we’re comfortable with beat sheets, we can tell at a glance whether our story is on track or not. However, we should not sacrifice story flow to stick to strict word or page counts. Those numbers are guidelines.

Good story flow and storytelling comes first. Just as our characters shouldn’t be puppets to the plot, we shouldn’t be puppets to the beat sheet. *smile*

If you’re interested in taking your knowledge of beat sheets further, check out my website (for posts about story structure, like a Beat Sheets 101 article), my Worksheets for Writers page (for explanations and links to each of my beat sheets), and my Workshops page.

Note: On May 8, I’ll be running my Beat Sheet Basics: Know Your Story’s Structure workshop, a much-expanded version of this post. Use the Promo Code “Jamisave” to save $5!

Are you familiar with beats and beat sheets? Have you used them to plan or revise your stories? Have they helped you before, and if not, what aspect did you struggle with? Do you have any questions about how to use them?

About Jami

Jami Gold 200 x 300After triggering the vampire/werewolf feud with an errant typo, Jami Gold moved to Arizona and decided to become a writer, where she could put her talent for making up stuff to good use. Fortunately, her muse, an arrogant male who delights in making her sound as insane as possible, rewards her with unique and rich story ideas.

Fueled by chocolate, she writes paranormal romance and urban fantasy tales that range from dark to humorous, but one thing remains the same: Normal need not apply. Just ask her family—and zombie cat.

Find Jami at her blog, Twitter, , Facebook, Pinterest, LinkedIn, and Goodreads.

43 comments on “Beat Sheets: For Plotters, Pantsers, and Technophobes”


    Yes. I plan to link to your site and download your beat sheets, Jami. I'm in the muck and muddle of editing my novel and found scenes (GLURG! WHOLE SCENES!) that add nothing to the flow of the story. No wonder I'm "off."

    There are other, non-writerly related reasons people think I'm a bit "off," but we need not explore those here.

    1. Hi Gloria,

      LOL! Yes, and once we have the scenes that we THINK belong there, I have a Scene Elements worksheet on that same Worksheets for Writers page that ensures every scene has enough going on to justify their existence. *readies chopping block* Mwhahahaha. 😉 Thanks for the comment!

  2. Hi Jami, I've long been a Blake Snyder 'Save The Cat' disciple and discovered your beat sheets over a year ago. Thank you for creating these terrific tools! (And bless you for including the auto-math feature.) I was a perfectionist writer who made painfully slow progress until I discovered how to squash my internal editor using Improv techniques (this was so life-changing, I developed a workshop and now teach what I learned to other writers.) I fast-draft my story with the major beats serving as sign-posts in my head, but because I'm also a visually-oriented reformed plotter and like to see the whole picture in all its rough, inelegant glory, I toss index card 'beats' or turning points up on my cork storyboard as I go. Then when I'm ready for revisions, I hunker down with both the Cat beat sheet as well as yours, using both concurrently to play with my index cards as I flesh out and shape my story. For good measure, I also overlay your Michael Hauge beat sheet (Six Stage Plot Structure for a Character's Internal Journey) and run each scene through your Elements of a Scene Worksheet. I appreciate the care and effort that went into creating your worksheets and thank you for your generosity in sharing them with the rest of us.

    1. Hi Denise,

      Aww, thank you so much for all the kind words! 🙂

      Yes, I'm a visual person too, so once I understood story structure and these beats, I could "see" the story as a whole even without these beat sheets in front of me. As I mentioned, I'm a pantser, so I don't complete these sheets ahead of time, but just understanding the structure behind them gives me goals to write toward (that's part of what I teach in my "Lost Your Pants?" workshop 🙂 ).

      I'm happy to help others with what I've learned. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!

    1. Hi Sharla, I'm happy to answer any questions you have. Also, I forgot to mention it in the post (I wonder if Jenny could update it for me--or you? 🙂 ), but people can use the Promo Code "Jamisave" to save $5 on my "Beat Sheet Basics" class if they want to get deeper into all of this. Thanks for having me here!

    1. Hi Jenny, Thanks for inviting me and having me here! 🙂

      Yes, I couldn't do this without the "auto-math" feature. LOL!

      By the way, I forgot to mention in the post--at the paragraph about my "Beat Sheet Basics" workshop--that people can use the Promo Code "Jamisave" to save $5. Is there any way to add that note for people? (Bad me, I know--sorry! *sheepish look*)

        1. Awesome! Thank you! I claim sleep-deprived-brain-dead-ness. LOL! (The neighbors are doing construction next door and have been starting the hammering EARLY. *sigh*)

  3. Thank you for all this great info, Jami. I've subscribed to your blog and can see it's full of more great info. This will be a great help to me now and in the future.

  4. Thank you so much for this golden nugget of a resource, Jami! I just downloaded your Beat Sheet and subscribed to your website. I'm a panster, mostly, and I can tell your approach doesn't cause my brain to seize up. Yay! 😀

    1. LOL! Yep, I do the least amount of planning necessary to get the words on the page. 🙂 My "Lost Your Pants?" class goes much deeper into that approach too.

  5. Wonderful post, thank you! I was familiar with the concept of beats from my theatre studies way back when, and I knew there were books out there getting into the nitty gritty, but being a big-picture person (and yes, visual) I really wanted a nice overview. This was just the right amount of detail and summary for my brain--and I'm off to check out the spreadsheets now. 🙂

  6. Wow, Jami, so much great information here! I've never used an actual beat sheet. I've used James Scott Bell's advice about doorways and story structure. I think I'll try this for my next book. Thanks!

  7. OH, I think there's one here not on your site. Downloading. 🙂 As a panster I was resistant to using them until I wrote a short story with a beat sheet. Eyes now opened, so glad to see you wrote here, also. 🙂

    1. Don't worry, they're all on my site because I do a post with each one to explain how to use it. 🙂

      Exactly! I'm glad to see other pantsers backing me up on this. LOL! I don't use beat sheets to come up with specifics most of the time. They just help me figure out what I want to accomplish with each beat ("Do something to make her lose trust here"). 🙂

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